Share:

Consumer Behavior in Tourism in Health Crises: A Model Using the Theory of Protection Motivation in Farm Hotels

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Abstract

The impacts of a health crisis on the tourism sector may be severe, as occurred in the current Covid-19 pandemic. The behavior of tourists, due to perceived risk, may suffer alterations and needs to be understood so that efficient strategic actions can be created to allow for the fast recovery of the economy in such a sector. Therefore, this study has the purpose for investigating the existing relations between perceived risk and its precedents and the intention of visiting and the willingness to pay more for farm hotels during a health crisis. Quantitative research was conducted through a survey, which had 441 valid respondents. Data was analyzed through the characterization of the sample, confirmatory factorial analysis, a structural model, and an importance-performance matrix. Therefore, there was a validation of the Theory of Motivation of Protection, in addition to establishing the positive association between Travel Motivation and Willingness to Pay More, with Travel Motivation being a predictor for future intentions.

Keyword : Pandemic, Perceived Risk, Intention to travel, Willingness to pay more, Theory of motivation of protection Pandemia, Risco percebido, Intenção de visitar, Disposição para pagar mais, Teoria da motivação de proteção

How to Cite
Rezende, D., Gosling, M., & de Castro, N. (2023). Consumer Behavior in Tourism in Health Crises: A Model Using the Theory of Protection Motivation in Farm Hotels. Brazilian Business Review, 21(3). https://doi.org/10.15728/bbr.2022.1256.en

References

Afshardoost, M., & Eshaghi, M. S. (2020). Destination image and tourist behavioral intentions: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 81, 104154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104154 Bae, S. Y., & Chang, P. J. (2021). The effect of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) risk perception on behavioural intention towards ‘untact’tourism in South Korea during the first wave of the pandemic (March 2020). Current Issues in Tourism, 24(7), 1017‒1035. https://doi.org/10.1080 /13683500.2020.1798895 Baloglu, S. (2000). A path analytic model of visitation intention involving information sources, sociopsychological motivations, and destination image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 8(3), 81‒90. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v08n03_05 Bauer, R. A. (1960). Consumer behavior as risk taking. Proceedings of the 43rd National Conference of the American Marketing Assocation, June 15, 16, 17, Chicago, Illinois, 1960, American Marketing Association, 389–398. Baum, T., & Hai, N. T. T. (2020). Hospitality, tourism, human rights and the impact of COVID-19. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(7), 2397‒2407. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-03-2020-0242 Bi, J., & Gu, C. (2019). Cultural distance and international tourists’ intention to visit a destination. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 24(8), 839‒849. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2019.1 635503 Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., & Aerts, J. C. (2012). A review of risk perceptions and other factors that influence flood mitigation behavior. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 32(9), 1481‒1495. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01783.x Caber, M., González-Rodríguez, M. R., Albayrak, T., & Simonetti, B. (2020). Does perceived risk really matter in travel behaviour? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 26(3), 334‒353. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1356766720927762 Chen, F., Dai, S., Zhu, Y., & Xu, H. (2020). Will concerns for ski tourism promote pro‐environmental behaviour? An implication of protection motivation theory. International Journal of Tourism Research, 22(3), 303‒313. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2336 Chien, P. M., Sharifpour, M., Ritchie, B. W., & Watson, B. (2017). Travelers’ health risk perceptions and protective behavior: A psychological approach. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 744‒759. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287516665479 Cho, M., Bonn, M. A., & Li, J. (2020). Examining risk-reduction behavior toward water quality among restaurant guests. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(3), 255‒270. https://doi. org/10.1177/1938965520919106 Chua, B. L., Al-Ansi, A., Lee, M. J., & Han, H. (2021). Impact of health risk perception on avoidance of international travel in the wake of a pandemic. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(7), 985‒1002. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1829570 Clow, K. E., & James, K. E. (2013). Essentials of marketing research: Putting research into practice. SAGE publications. Deng, S., Wang, W., Xie, P., Chao, Y., & Zhu, J. (2020). Perceived severity of COVID-19 and post-pandemic consumption willingness: The roles of boredom and sensation-seeking. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 567784. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.567784 Duncan, L. A., Schaller, M., & Park, J. H. (2009). Perceived vulnerability to disease: Development and validation of a 15-item self-report instrument. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(6), 541‒546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.05.001 Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley. Fisher, J. J., Almanza, B. A., Behnke, C., Nelson, D. C., & Neal, J. (2018). Norovirus on cruise ships: Motivation for handwashing? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 75, 10‒17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.02.001 Floyd, D. L., Prentice‐Dunn, S., & Rogers, R. W. (2000). A meta‐analysis of research on protection motivation theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(2), 407‒429. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02323.x Fodness, D. (1994). Measuring tourist motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 555‒581. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(94)90120-1 Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388. https:// doi.org/10.2307/3150980 Fu, H., Ye, B. H., & Xiang, J. (2016). Reality TV, audience travel intentions, and destination image. Tourism management, 55(C), 37‒48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.01.009 Google Trends. (2021, June 8). Hotel fazenda. Google Trends. https://trends.google.com.br/trends/ explore?date=2020-03-11%202021-06-08&geo=BR&q=hotel%20fazenda Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: A rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1‒20. https://doi.org/10.1080 /09669582.2020.1758708 Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Análise multivariada de dados. Artmed. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). Sage. Hall, C. M., Scott, D., & Gössling, S. (2020). Pandemics, transformations and tourism: Be careful what you wish for. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 577‒598. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2 020.1759131 Harapan, H., Itoh, N., Yufika, A., Winardi, W., Keam, S., Te, H., Megawati, D., Hayati, Z., Wagner, A. L., & Mudatsir, M. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A literature review. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(5), 667–673. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.03.019 Hartjes, L. B., Baumann, L. C., & Henriques, J. B. (2009). Travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors of US study abroad students. Journal of Travel Medicine, 16(5), 338‒343. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2009.00322.x Hosany, S., Buzova, D., & Sanz-Blas, S. (2020). The influence of place attachment, ad-evoked positive affect, and motivation on intention to visit: Imagination proclivity as a moderator. Journal of Travel Research, 59(3), 477‒495. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287519830789 Huang, S., & Hsu, C. H. (2009). Effects of travel motivation, past experience, perceived constraint, and attitude on revisit intention. Journal of Travel Research, 48(1), 29‒44. https://doi. org/10.1177/0047287508328793 Hultman, M., Kazeminia, A., & Ghasemi, V. (2015). Intention to visit and willingness to pay premium for ecotourism: The impact of attitude, materialism, and motivation. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1854‒1861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.013 Jacoby, J., & Kaplan, L. (1972). The components of perceived risk. Advances in Consumer Research, 3, 1–19. Janmaimool, P. (2017). Application of protection motivation theory to investigate sustainable waste management behaviors. Sustainability, 9(7), 1079. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071079 Jiang, Y., & Wen, J. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on hotel marketing and management: A perspective article. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(8), 2563–2573. https:// doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-03-2020-0237 Khan, M. J., Chelliah, S., & Ahmed, S. (2017). Factors influencing destination image and visit intention among young women travellers: Role of travel motivation, perceived risks, and travel constraints. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(11), 1139‒1155. https://doi.org/10.108 0/10941665.2017.1374985 Khan, M. J., Chelliah, S., Khan, F., & Amin, S. (2019). Perceived risks, travel constraints and visit intention of young women travelers: The moderating role of travel motivation. Tourism Review, 74(3), 721–738. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-08-2018-0116 Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit. Houghton Mifflin. Küpeli, T., & Özer, L. (2020). Assessing perceived risk and perceived value in the hotel industry: An integrated approach. Anatolia, 31(1), 111‒130. https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2020.1711785 Lai, I. K. W., & Wong, J. W. C. (2020). Comparing crisis management practices in the hotel industry between initial and pandemic stages of COVID-19. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(10), 3135–3156. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2020-0325 Lee, J. H., Mustapha, A., & Hwang, J. (2019) Enhancing ethnic restaurant visits and reducing risk perception: The effect of information and protection motivation. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 2(4), 341–357. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTI-10-2018-0068 Li, M., & Cai, L. A. (2012). The effects of personal values on travel motivation and behavioral intention. Journal of Travel Research, 51(4), 473‒487. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287511418366 Lin, C. T., Huang, Y. S., Liao, L. W., & Ting, C. T. (2020). Measuring consumer willingness to pay to reduce health risks of contracting dengue fever. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1810. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051810 Loi, L. T. I., So, A. S. I., Lo, I. S., & Fong, L. H. N. (2017). Does the quality of tourist shuttles influence revisit intention through destination image and satisfaction? The case of Macao. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 115‒123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2017.06.002 Maddux, J. E., & Rogers, R. W. (1983). Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19(5), 469‒479. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(83)90023-9 Malhotra, N., Nunan, D., & Birks, D. (2017). Marketing research: An applied approach. Pearson. Memish, Z. A., Goubeaud, A., Bröker, M., Malerczyk, C., & Shibl, A. M. (2010). Invasive meningococcal disease and travel. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 3(4), 143‒151. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2010.09.008 Mitchell, V. (1992). Understanding consumers’ behaviour: Can perceived risk theory help? Management Decision, 30(3), 26–31. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251749210013050 MTUR ‒ Ministério do Turismo. (2010). Sistema de classificação dos meios de hospedagem. Ministério do Turismo do Brasil. http://antigo.turismo.gov.br/acesso-a-informacao/63-acoes-e-programas/5021- sistema-brasileiro-de-classificacao-de-meios-de-hospedagem-sbclass.html MTUR ‒ Ministério do Turismo. (2020, June 7). Ministério do Turismo divulga estudo sobre parques nacionais e ecoturismo. Ministério do Turismo. https://www.gov.br/turismo/pt-br/assuntos/ultimasnoticias/ ministerio-do-turismo-divulga-estudo-sobre-parques-nacionais-e-ecoturismo. Neuburger, L., & Egger, R. (2021). Travel risk perception and travel behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic 2020: A case study of the DACH region. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(7), 1003‒1016. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1803807 Papadimitriou, D., & Gibson, H. (2008). Benefits sought and realized by active mountain sport tourists in Epirus, Greece: Pre-and post-trip analysis. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 13(1), 37‒60. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775080801972056 Prayag, G., & Ryan, C. (2012). Antecedentes da lealdade dos turistas às Ilhas Maurício: o papel e a influência da imagem do destino, apego ao lugar, envolvimento pessoal e satisfação. Journal of Travel Research, 51(3), 342–356. Prebensen, N. K., Woo, E., Chen, J. S., & Uysal, M. (2013). Motivation and involvement as antecedents of the perceived value of the destination experience. Journal of Travel Research, 52(2), 253‒264. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287512461181 Qiu, R. T., Park, J., Li, S., & Song, H. (2020). Social costs of tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Annals of Tourism Research, 84, 102994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102994 Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797‒805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tourman.2009.08.006 Rogers, R. W. (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change1. The Journal of Psychology, 91(1), 93‒114. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1975.9915803 Roselius, T. (1971). Consumer rankings of risk reduction methods. Journal of Marketing, 35(1), 56‒61. https://doi.org/10.2307/1250565 Sanabria-Díaz, J. M., Aguiar-Quintana, T., & Araujo-Cabrera, Y. (2021). Public strategies to rescue the hospitality industry following the impact of COVID-19: A case study of the European Union. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 97, 102988. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ijhm.2021.102988 SEBRAE ‒ Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas. (2012). Ideias Sustentáveis - Hotel Fazenda. SEBRAE. http://extranet2.pr.sebrae.com.br/portal/sustentabilidade/Hotel%20 Fazenda.pdf Tang, Y. (2014). Travel motivation, destination image and visitor satisfaction of international tourists after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A structural modelling approach. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(11), 1260‒1277. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2013.844181 Tavitiyaman, P., & Qu, H. (2013). Destination image and behavior intention of travelers to Thailand: The moderating effect of perceived risk. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(3), 169–185. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2013.774911 Varah, F., Mahongnao, M., Pani, B., & Khamrang, S. (2021). Exploring young consumers’ intention toward green products: Applying an extended theory of planned behavior. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(6), 9181‒9195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01018-z Wang, F., Xue, T., Wang, T., & Wu, B. (2020). The mechanism of tourism risk perception in severe epidemic—The antecedent effect of place image depicted in anti-epidemic music videos and the moderating effect of visiting history. Sustainability, 12(13), 5454. https://doi.org/10.3390/ su12135454 Wang, J., Liu-Lastres, B., Ritchie, B. W., & Mills, D. J. (2019). Travellers’ self-protections against health risks: An application of the full Protection Motivation Theory. Annals of Tourism Research, 78, 102743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102743 WTTC ‒ World Travel & Tourism Council. (2020). Travel & tourism - global economic impact & trend 2020 - may 2020. WTTC. Zenker, S., & Kock, F. (2020). The coronavirus pandemic–A critical discussion of a tourism research agenda. Tourism Management, 81, 104164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104164 Zheng, S. (2018). Evaluating the impact of travel motivations, sensation seeking, destination perceived risk on consumer choice. Kent State University College. Zhu, H., & Deng, F. (2020). How to influence rural tourism intention by risk knowledge during COVID-19 containment in China: Mediating role of risk perception and attitude. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3514. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph17103514

Send mail to Author


Send Cancel